The Holy Spirit in the Old Testament

The Holy Spirit in the Old Testament

Jesus promised his Apostles and disciples the coming of the Holy Spirit in power following His ascension, but… the Holy Spirit appeared throughout the Old Testament as follows:

GENESIS
-Spirit of God in creation (1:2)
-Drew animals to the Ark (7:9)
-Spirit working in Joseph (41:38)

EXODUS
-As symbol in oil (27:20, 30:31)
-Fruit of the Holy Spirit (34:6-7)
-Holy Spirit enhances abilities (31:3-11, 35:30-36:1)

LEVITICUS
-The Oil (2:1)
-Holiness of action/worship (10:3)
-Holiness of people (11:44)
-Holiness of God (19:2)

NUMBERS
-Anointing for leadership (11:17)
-Gives prophetic words (11:23, 25)
-Desired for all people (11:29)

DEUTERONOMY
-Prophecies of Moses (18:15; 30:1, 2, 5, 6, 9)

JOSHUA
-Ever-present Spirit (1:5)
-Enjoins human partnership (1:6-7)
-Empowers human effort (6:20; 10:12-13)

JUDGES
-Spirit upon Othniel (3:10)
-Spirit with Gideon (6:34)
-Spirit equipped Jephthah (11:29)
-Spirit empowered Samson (13:25; 14:6, 19; 15:14, 15)

RUTH
-Naomi gently guides (Chapter 2, 3)

1 SAMUEL
-Saul transformed and equipped (10:6)
-Saul prophecies (10:10)
-Spirit upon David (16:13)
-Spirit inspires worship (19:20)

2 SAMUEL
Priestly Counselor (15:25-28)
-Conviction by Nathan (12:1-15)

1 KINGS
-Spirit of the Lord (18:12)
-Enabling “Hand of the Lord” (18:46)
-Spirit from the Lord (22:24)

2 KINGS
-Spirit of the Lord (2:16)
-Empowering Spirit (2:9-16)
-Hand of the Lord (3:15)

1 CHRONICLES
-Spirit gives utterance (12:18)
-Spirit reveals (28:12)

2 CHRONICLES
-Spirit of God gives utterance (15:1; 24:20)
-Spirit of the Lord gives utterance (20:14)
-Spirit dwells in the Temple (5:13-14)
-Spirit of the Lord (18:23)

EZRA
-Holy Spirit moves on the heart of Cyrus (1:1)
-Turned the heart of the king (6:22)
-Gave prophetic utterance (5:1)
-Gives favor (7:1)

NEHEMIAH
-The Hand of God (2:18)

ESTHER
-Produces humility, love and loyalty in Mordecai and Esther (Romans 5:5)
-Directs Esther to fast for her nation and call her people to do the same (Romans 8:26-27) -Holy Spirit gives wisdom (32:8)
-Holy Spirit gives life (33:4)
-Holy Spirit sustains life (34:14-15)

PSALMS
-Creates life (104:30)
-Accompanies the believer (139:7)
-Guides and instructs (143:10)
-Sustains the repentant (51:11-12)
-Interacts with the rebellious (106:33)

PROVERBS
-Wisdom’s Spirit (1:23)

ECCLESIASTES
-All references to “spirit” in Ecclesiastes are to the life-force that animates the human or animal (see 3:18-21)

SONG OF SONGS
-Love is a work of the Spirit (Romans 5:5)

ISAIAH
-Empowering Spirit (11:1-2)
-Spirit on His servant (42:1-9)
-Anointing Spirit (61:1-3)
-Spirit out poured (44:1-5; 63:1-5)
-Spirit protects (59:19-21)
-Lamb of God (53:7)
-Spirit at creation (40:13; 48:16)

JEREMIAH
-Fire of the Spirit (5:14; 20:9)
-Spirit writes laws on men’s hearts (31:33)

LAMENTATIONS
-Spirit grieves over sin (2:1-6; Isaiah 63:10)
-Spirit leads to repentance (John 16:7-11)

EZEKIAL
-Spirit enters in (2:2)
-Spirit inspires prophecy (11:5)
-Spirit gives vision (11:24)
-Spirit promised (36:26)
-Spirit brings life (37:1)

DANIEL
-Gives dream interpretation (2:29-45; 4:19-27)
-Gives prophetic insights (Chapter 7-12)

HOSEA
-Although the work of the Holy Spirit is not mentioned specifically in Hosea, the impartation and revelation to prophets is credited to the Holy Spirit in other passages (Isaiah 48:16; Ezekial 3:24; Micah 3:3)

JOEL
-Spirit poured out (2:28-32; Acts 2:16)

AMOS
-Although the work of the Holy Spirit is not mentioned specifically in Amos, the impartation and revelation to prophets is credited to the Holy Spirit in other passages (Isaiah 48:16; Ezekial 3:24; Micah 3:3)

OBADIAH
-There is no specific reference to the Holy Spirit in Obadiah, but His working is assumed in imparting the vision (v. 1) and prompting the fulfillment of God’s judgment.

JONAH
-Spirit inspires prophecy (3:4)
-Spirit brings conviction (3:5-10)

MICAH
-Power by the Spirit of the Lord (3:8)

NAHUM
-Spirit gives a vision (1:1)

HABAKKUK
-Spirit received by faith (2:4; Galatians 3:11-14; Joy, fruit of the Spirit 4:18; Galatians 5:22)

ZEPHANIAH
-Spirit convicts of judgment (2:1-2; John 16:8-11)
-Promise of a pure language (3:9; Acts 2:1-11)
-The gift of tongues unites believers (3:9; Acts 10:44-48)

HAGGAI
-Holy Spirit is an abiding gift (2:5)
-Holy Spirit drives out fear (2:5)

ZECHARIAH
-Work done by the Spirit of God (4:6)
-The Spirit gives revelation (7:12)
-The Spirit of grace and supplication (12:10)

MALACHI
-The Spirit gives prophecy (1:1)

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